This Article consists of Research related to the development of laws related to Artificial Intelligence in India. Its a research upon various legally used robots worldwide, laws of robotics, and then finally, the conclusion leading to the requirement of laws related to Artificial intelligence in all the nations of the world. The way Artificial intelligence is helping humans to work quicker, solve problems in a faster, analytical way in every aspect of everyday life; is really appreciable. This has reached up to the level of the legal industry as well but, cannot replace the physical presence of Advocates in the Courts of the country. Therefore, this article focuses on all aspects of Artificial Intelligence and Law.
‘Artificial Intelligence’ is a term first coined in 1956; by an American Computer Scientist, The father of Artificial Intelligence- “John McCarthy”.
Commonly called Machine Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence basically means stimulation of intelligent human behavior in the machine, leading it to behave, act, and perform tasks like human beings. Better performance in handling critical and comes tasks, reducing the work pressure of human beings, receiving maximum output with minimal labor; are some of the soul purposes of Artificial Intelligence. India, with the development of various Artificial intelligence robots- Manav, Mitra, Robocap, KEMPA, RADA, IRA, INDRO, DRDO’s Sakshi….etc. still is in the early stage of development in the field of Artificial intelligence. India ranks among the top 20 countries in Artificial Intelligence Readiness Index released by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) [2019 data]. Robots have been helpful in almost all fields like agriculture, technology, defense, legal industry, etc.
Contribution of Artificial Intelligence in the Legal Industry:-
Although the Indian legal industry is said to be Labor Intensive in nature, Artificial intelligence aids human beings in better performance in the field of law as well.
- Legal Research- Artificial intelligence makes legal Research quicker and easier. Although in the legal profession, research plays a major role, it is the most time-consuming work for the lawyers. Thus, AI makes this part easier.
- Due diligence- Legal software help in conducting various Research, reviewing contracts, or performing electronic discovery functions.
- Legal Analytics- AI helps in going through and finding out various earlier judgments and precedents that could be used in the present case.
- Development of electronic bills helpful to both the lawyers as well as the clients.
- AI even provides insights in the Intellectual Property and helps further in the registration of various trademarks, Patents, copyright, etc.
- Prediction Technology- AI even helps to draw the conclusion and predict the probable judgment of the case being adjudicated before the court of law.
Various Indian Legal Agencies of Artificial Intelligence are NITI Aayog, DST, MeitY, etc.
In the field of law, Artificial Intelligence has proved to be really helpful. Manav, India’s first 3-D printed humanoid robot assists Research institutes for quicker better research. Robocap, a police robot assists in better traffic management, also in handling law and order.
Sophia, developed by Hong Kong-based company, was the first robot citizen to attend a conference in India. ROSS, developed by US-based Ross Intelligence; is the world’s first Artificial Intelligence lawyer, which aids humans in various legal research. Kira is a creation of AI which helps in analyzing data based on concepts of Contract. Lawbot helps victims of sexual assault in the UK. Lex Machina, Luminance, Casetext, Omnity, etc. Are various other AI startups that develop various technologies for the legal industry.
ASIMOV’s Laws of Robotics:-
A robot developed must be such that it:
- May not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm;
- Must obey the orders given by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the first law; and
- Must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the above two principles.
Indian Laws relating to Artificial Intelligence:-
In spite of so much development and use of artificial intelligence in every aspect of daily life, no AI-related laws or legislations have been regulated in the country to date. Without the use of AI, the legal profession is hard to run perfectly as the pendency of cases and the slow progress in the decision making of the cases really requires this AI to reduce the work burden of the labor-intensive legal profession. The main conflict in making legislations regarding Artificial Intelligence is to recognize AI as a Legal person. Unless robots are regarded as legal persons, the pre-existing laws cannot apply upon the discovery of AI. Mere following of three Asimov’s laws of robotics would not be enough for the fair use of AI in the country.
There must be an introduction of Separate Laws related to Artificial intelligence and robots. It is still debatable to decide whether robots could be charged with Taxes in India. Unless they’re considered as a person they cannot be included in The category of paying taxes under the Income Tax Act, 1961(South Korea– 1st country to impose taxes on the robot). Also, AI uses personal data for better functioning.
Thus, laws relating to AI must be included in Protection Data Bill, 2019. Although development in technologies can lead to easier manual work for the various legal practitioners, practically, the Robots cannot replace advocates. It’s hard to believe that a robot goes to the court to fight a case. AI can help a lot with the paperwork, Researching, predicting the outcome, helping with the precedent handling; but in no way can they replace the physical presence of a much- needed Advocate in the Couts of the country.
With the growing popularity of technology advancement, denying the boon provided by Artificial Intelligence is unreasonable. Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s various movements Make in India, Skill India, and Digital India; shout out for more and more development of AI in every aspect of life. As the pros are accompanied by corns! The positive effects of AI are accompanied by its negative effects too. To deal with them, it’s mandatory for all the nations to find out and form reasonable and logical legislation that could categorize the robots into it. As robots are difficult to be regarded as humans, it must be thought by the lawmakers to come up with the fairest laws that could lead the country to the greatest heights and be beneficial for the humans to the fullest.
Simran | JIMS, Greater Noida