Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was a savior of the oppressed classes, a well-known jurist, the chief architect of the Indian constitution. He was a brilliant thinker, a visionary, and a daring leader, a multifaceted personality, a radical intellectual. He is considered a beacon of hope for the downtrodden and marginalized parts of Indian society.
In his life, Dr. Babasaheb’s goal was to question the intellectual foundation of a graduated structure of caste hierarchy. He fought for rights for the untouchables sections of the society, and for women equality, freedom, and human dignity in the Hindu Society. Injustice is the main issue in Indian society. One of the current issues at this moment is inequality. Caste prejudice, women empowerment, etc. are still seen in India.
Existence of Inequality since ancient times
The caste-based Hindu social structure has upheld a social order since ancient times. That was the principal cause of inequality in Indian society. All humans are equal by birth, but few people developed a caste system based on occupations. It led to the evil practice of untouchability. India has introduced social justice programs for the weaker sections through its reservation scheme. This was historically an issue from its very beginnings. He had addressed these problems differently during the time of independence. Subsequently, the leadership of Ambedkar provided a fresh direction for the entire development of backward people. His entire life was a constant fight against inequality in society. Ambedkar did a movement among oppressed groups. His idea of justice had been developed by the French Revolution.
Fight against Untouchability
He addressed the issue of untouchability and came up with practical ideas for eliminating untouchability. In other words, uplifting of the marginalized and excluded humans. Ambedkar’s contribution to establishing the casteless society is now at a critical juncture. He claimed that the root of untouchability lies in the caste system. Caste was a powerful tool in the hands of the orthodox to persecute the reformers and destroy all reforms. According to him, without the caste elimination, no socio-political reform movement could be successful. He wanted justice for the untouchables and for the weaker sections of society by making provision in the Constitution itself in this regard. The just society of Ambedkar is built on three fundamental principles: Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity.
Fight for equal women rights
A literature survey shows that women have not been given fair care in our country since ancient times. Her place in society was never on par with men. She was not even granted basic rights. They were also equated with animals and placed on humanity’s lowest rug. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar worked for the emancipation of the economy of women. He emphasized the need to protect the dignity and preserve the modesty of women folk.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar started the movement and fought for the women’s basic rights in the country and raise voice for liberalization. He focused on promoting the need for women’s education. Some of his work include:
- The right to religious freedom.
- Equal voting rights.
- The right to get many posts (equal posts based on merit, the same as any man).
- The equal right to divorce.
- Provision for delivery leave.
- Working hours reduced from 12 hours to 8 hours.
- Eliminated female-male inequality.
- Prohibited child marriage and gave the right to widow marriage.
- Prohibited prostitute practice.
- The right to live life with human dignity.
And the list simply goes on.
Support for women rights in the constitution
Dr. Ambedkar wrote the book “Hindu women rise and fall” for women in which women have the right to equality in Buddhism. Baba Saheb Ambedkar continued to fight for the right to equality for women from 1916 until the introduction of the 1951 Hindu Code Bill. Article (Section) 39 of the Constitution provided for the right to equal pay for men and women. B.R. Ambedkar said for women that the progress of any society is reflected in the progress of their women. Let the men see that your women are not behind you in this self-liberating movement. A woman should not be limited to producing only stove and children, she should come to develop herself.
Nari is the creator of the nation, every citizen grows up in his lap, the development of the nation is not possible without awakening Nari. Article (Section) 13 dismantled all classical rules and gave a woman the right to live respectfully as a human being. It is important to bring awareness to every woman about the Indian Constitution.
Contribution towards Nation building
Apart from women empowerment and rights for the backward. B.R. Ambedkar did a lot for the nation-building. He brought electricity production under government control. He has also vowed to create massive dams over the rivers for flood control and expansion of the irrigation system. Some examples include the Damodar Valley Project and Bhakra Nangal Dam. The formation of the reserve bank of India (1934) is also based on the ideas of B.R Ambedkar.
B.R. Ambedkar was honored as the “chairman of the Drafting Committee”. He had these great honors due to his bright characteristics and his deep and broad study. He had excellent knowledge of English, expertise in illustrating the subject, and his ideal patriotism. The Constitution is a complex document that should be extended along with the growth of the country. With progress and change, it has to be adjusted to changing needs. Dr. Ambedkar, therefore, urged the amendment to be necessary.
He suggested that all major industries will be under government control and will be run by the government itself. Even those industries which are not dominant will be run by the government or government enterprises. Insurance will be in the hands of the government. For insurance, people will be only required to take a life insurance policy. Agriculture will be declared a state industry. The government will nationalize all the major industries, insurance companies, and agricultural land by giving compensation to their owners as inventories.
His view on the Agricultural industry
The agricultural industry will be run as follows:-
The land acquired by the government will be divided into appropriately sized firms and will be allotted to the rural family groups to produce as a unit on the following terms. There will be mass farming on the farm. Production will be done as per the rules made by the government on the farm. The production remaining after paying tenancy tax etc. will be divided in the prescribed manner. The land will be distributed among all the people without any discrimination of caste, religion, etc. in such a way that neither there will be any landlord nor any landless laborer. It will be the responsibility of the government to provide water, equipment, animals, manure, and seeds.
Thus, we see that the economic form of nation-building proposed by Babasaheb was state socialist.
Babasaheb emphasized the creative role of Raj shakti. A truly democratic state would be public welfare if such a rule could be used to discipline vested interests such as landlords and capitalists and to erode their socioeconomic base. Freedom cannot be given to the general public without limiting their rights.
The outline of socialism was noticeably clear in Babasaheb’s mind. He saw this as crucial for India’s social transition and economic growth. Babasaheb also presented this outline to the nation in his draft of the future Constitution of India.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was the path-maker of all women’s, caste, religion, gender equality. And introduced a new pattern of rebellion through his thoughts and beliefs to society. all the people of India should be proud of the monumental and everlasting steps taken by Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar in Indian society. Yet violence against women, caste, and religion is still being over-looked in Indian society. So, it is every Indian’s responsibility to fulfill Ambedkar’s dreams for a better world. It may also be noted here that the word “social justice” will not be properly practiced if the people of India cannot change their attitudes to women, SCs, STs and other weaker sections of society.